ENGINE FAILURE – GENERAL
An engine flameout can be due to many reasons, for example:
‐ Fuel starvation
‐ Encounter with volcanic ash, sand or dust clouds
‐ Heavy rain, hail, or icing
‐ Bird strike
‐ Engine stall
‐ Engine control system malfunction.
An engine flameout may trigger an ECAM alert.
The flight crew can detect an engine flameout without damage by a rapid decrease of EPR/N1, N2, N3 , EGT and FF.
The flight crew can suspect engine damage, if the flight crew observes two or more of the following symptoms:
‐ Rapid increase of the EGT above the red line
‐ Important mismatch of the rotor speeds, or absence of rotation
‐ Significant increase of aircraft vibrations, or buffeting, or both vibrations and buffeting
‐ Hydraulic system loss
‐ Repeated, or not controllable engine stalls.
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER V1
If an engine fails after V1 the takeoff must be continued. The essential and primary tasks are linked to aircraft handling. The aircraft must be stabilized at the correct pitch and airspeed, and established on the correct track prior to the initiation of the ECAM procedure.
ON THE GROUND:
Rudder is used conventionally to maintain the aircraft on the runway centreline. At VR, rotate the aircraft smoothly, at a slower rate than with all engines operation, using a continuous pitch rate to an initial pitch attitude of 12.5 °. The combination of high FLEX temperature and low V speeds requires precise handling during the rotation and lift off. The 12.5 ° pitch target will ensure the aircraft becomes airborne.
WHEN SAFELY AIRBORNE:
The SRS orders should then be followed which may demand a lower pitch attitude to acquire or maintain V2. With a positive rate of climb and when the radio height has increased, the PM will call “positive climb”. This will suggest to the PF for landing gear retraction. Shortly after lift off, the lateral normal law commands some rudder surface deflection to minimize the sideslip (there is no feedback of this command to the pedals). Thus, the lateral behavior of the aircraft is safe and the pilot should not be in a hurry to react on the rudder pedals and to chase the beta target. The blue beta target will replace the normal sideslip indication on the PFD. Since the lateral normal law does not command the full needed rudder surface deflection, the pilot will have to adjust conventionally the rudder pedals to center the beta target.
When the beta target is centred, total drag is minimized even though there is a small amount of sideslip. The calculation of the beta target is a compromise between drag produced by target produces less total drag than centering a conventional ball, as rudder deflection, aileron deflection, spoiler deployment and aircraft body angle are all taken into account. The crew will keep in mind that the yaw damper reacts to a detected side slip. This means that, with hands off the stick and no rudder input, the aircraft will bank at about 5 ° maximum and then, will remain stabilized. Thus, laterally, the aircraft is a stable platform and no rush is required to laterally trim the aircraft. Control heading conventionally with bank, keeping the beta target at zero with rudder. Accelerate if the beta target cannot be zeroed with full rudder. Trim
the rudder conventionally. The use of the autopilot is STRONGLY recommended. Following an engine failure, the rudder should be trimmed out prior to autopilot engagement. Once AP is engaged, the rudder trim is managed through the AP and, hence, manual rudder
trim command, including reset, is inhibited.
Consider the use of TOGA thrust, keeping in mind the following:
• For a FLEX takeoff, selecting the operating engine to TOGA provides additional performance margin but is not a requirement of the reduced thrust takeoff certification. The application of TOGA will very quickly supply a large thrust increase but this comes with a significant increase in yawing moment and an increased pitch rate. The selection of TOGA restores thrust margins but it may be at the expense of increased workload in aircraft handling.
• For a derated takeoff , the flight crew cannot apply asymmetric TOGA thrust if the speed is below F, due to VMCA considerations.
• Takeoff thrust is limited to 10 minutes.
INITIATION OF THE PROCEDURE
The PM will closely monitor the aircraft’s flight path. He will cancel any Master Warning/Caution and read the ECAM title displayed on the top line of the E/WD.
Procedures are initiated on PF command. No action is taken (apart from cancelling audio warnings through the MASTER WARNING light) until:
• The appropriate flight path is established and,
• The aircraft is at least 400 ft above the runway.
A height of 400 ft is recommended because it is a good compromise between the necessary time for stabilization and the excessive delay in procedure initiation.
Priority must be given to the control of aircraft trajectory. Once the PF has stabilized the flight path, the PM confirms the failure and the PF orders ECAM actions.
The flight crew should delay the acceleration for securing the engine. An engine is considered as secured when the ECAM actions of the procedures are performed until:
• “ENG MASTER OFF” for an engine failure without damage
• “AGENT 1 DISH” for an engine failure with damage
• Fire extinguished or “AGENT 2 DISH” for an engine fire.
Note: If the decision has been taken to delay the acceleration, the flight crew must not exceed the engine out maximum acceleration altitude. (The engine out maximum acceleration altitude corresponds to the maximum altitude that can be achieved with one engine out and the other engine(s) operating at takeoff thrust for a maximum of 10 min.)
At the engine-out acceleration altitude, push ALT pb or push the V/S knob to level off the aircraft and to allow the speed to increase. If the aircraft is being flown manually, the PF should remember that, as airspeed increases, the rudder input needed to keep the beta target centred will reduce. Retract the flaps as normal. When the flap lever is at zero, the beta target reverts to the normal sideslip indication.
FINAL TAKEOFF SEGMENT
As the speed trend arrow reaches Green Dot speed, pull for OPEN CLIMB, set THR MCT when the LVR MCT message flashes on the FMA (triggered as the speed index reaches green dot) and resume climb using MCT. If the thrust lever are already in the FLX/MCT detent, move lever to CL and then back to MCT.
When an engine failure occurs after takeoff, noise abatement procedures are no longer a requirement. Additionally, the acceleration altitude provides a compromise between obstacle clearance and engine thrust limiting time. It allows the aircraft to be configured to Flap 0 and
green dot speed, which provides the best climb gradient.
Once established on the final takeoff flight path, continue the ECAM (consider OEB, if applicable). When the STATUS is displayed, the AFTER TAKEOFF/CLIMB checklist should be completed and both the computer reset and engine relight (if no damage) considered. STATUS should then be reviewed.
ONE ENGINE OUT FLIGHT PATH
The one engine out flight path will be flown according to the takeoff briefing made at the gate:
• The EOSID (with attention to the decision point location)
• The SID
• Radar vectors…
ENGINE FAILURE DURING INITIAL CLIMB-OUT
Proceed as above. If the failure occurs above V2 however, maintain the SRS commanded attitude. In any event the minimum speed must be V2. When an engine failure is detected, the FMGS produces predictions based on the engine-out configuration and any pre-selected speeds entered in the MCDU are deleted.
ENGINE FAILURE DURING CRUISE
There are three strategies available for dealing with an engine failure in the cruise:
• The standard strategy
• The obstacle strategy
• The fixed speed strategy
The fixed speed strategy refers to ETOPS. It is mentioned in a separate course and also in the FCOM PRO-SPO-40-40 DIVERSION PERFORMANCE DATA.
Unless a specific procedure has been established before dispatch (considering ETOPS or mountainous areas), the standard strategy is used.
Note: Pressing the EO CLR key on the MCDU restores the all engine operative predictions and performance. Reverting to one engine-out performance again is not possible.
As soon as the engine failure is recognized, the PF will simultaneously:
• Set all thrust levers to MCT
• Disconnect A/THR
Then, PF will
• Select the SPEED according to the strategy
• If appropriate, select a HDG to keep clear of the airway, preferably heading towards an alternate. Consideration should be given to aircraft position relative to any relevant critical point
• Select the appropriate engine inoperative altitude in the FCU ALT window and pull for OPEN DES
Then, PF will
• Require the ECAM actions
At high flight levels close to limiting weights, crew actions should not be delayed, as speed will decay quickly requiring a prompt crew response. The crew will avoid decelerating below green dot.
The A/THR is disconnected to avoid any engine thrust reduction when selecting speed according to strategy or when pulling for OPEN DES to initiate the descent. With the A/THR disconnected, the target speed is controlled by the elevator when in OPEN DES.
Carrying out the ECAM actions should not be hurried, as it is important to complete the drill correctly. Generally, there will be sufficient time to cross check all actions.
Set speed target M 0.78/300 kt. The speed of 0.78/300 kt is chosen to ensure the aircraft is within the stabilised windmill engine relight in-flight envelope.
The REC MAX EO Cruise altitude, which equates to LRC with anti-icing off, is displayed on the MCDU PROG page and should be set on the FCU. (One engine out gross ceiling at long-range speed is also available in the QRH in case of double FM failure). If V/S becomes less than 500 ft/min, select V/S -500 ft/min and A/THR on. This is likely to occur as level off altitude is approached.
Once established at level off altitude, long-range cruise performance with one engine out may be extracted from QRH or Refer to FCOM/PER-OEI-GEN-10 PROCEDURE.
To maintain the highest possible level due to terrain, the drift down procedure must be adopted. The speed target in this case is green dot. The procedure is similar to the standard strategy, but as the speed target is now green dot, the rate and angle of descent will be lower.
The MCDU PERF CRZ page in EO condition will display the drift down ceiling, assuming green dot speed and should be set on FCU. (One engine out gross ceiling at green dot speed is also available in the QRH and FCOM).
If, having reached the drift down ceiling altitude, obstacle problems remain, the drift down procedure must be maintained so as to fly an ascending cruise profile. When clear of obstacles, set LRC ceiling on FCU, return to LRC speed and engage A/THR.
Autoland is available with one engine inoperative, and maximum use of the AP should be made to minimise crew workload. If required, a manual approach and landing with one engine inoperative is conventional. The pilot should trim to keep the slip indication centred. It remains yellow as long as the thrust on the remaining engine(s) is below a certain value. With flap selected and above this threshold value, the indicator becomes the blue beta target. This is a visual cue that the aircraft is approaching its maximum thrust capability.
Do not select the gear down too early, as large amounts of power will be required to maintain level flight at high weights and/or high altitude airports.
To make the landing run easier, the rudder trim can be reset to zero in the later stages of the approach. On pressing the rudder trim reset button, the trim is removed and the pilot should anticipate the increased rudder force required. With rudder trim at zero, the neutral rudder pedal position corresponds to zero rudder and zero nose wheel deflection.
CIRCLING ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE
In normal conditions, circling with one engine inoperative requires the down wind leg to be flown in CONF 3, with landing gear extended.
In hot and high conditions and at high landing weight, the aircraft may not be able to maintain level flight in CONF 3 with landing gear down. The flight crew should check the maximum weight showed in the QRH CIRCLING APPROACH WITH ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE procedure table. If the landing weight is above this maximum value, the landing gear extension should be delayed until established on final approach.
If the approach is flown at less than 750 ft RA, the warning “L/G NOT DOWN” will be triggered. “TOO LOW GEAR” warning is to be expected, if the landing gear is not downlocked at 500 ft RA. Therefore, if weather conditions permit, it is recommended to fly a higher circling pattern.
ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE GO-AROUND
A one engine inoperative go-around is similar to a go-around flown with all engines.
On the application of TOGA, the flight crew must apply rudder promptly to compensate for the increase in thrust and consequently to keep the beta target centred.
Provided the flap lever is selected to Flap 1 or greater, SRS will engage and will be followed. If SRS is not available, the initial target pitch attitude will be 12.5 °.
The lateral FD mode will be GA TRK (or NAV if option installed) and this must be considered with respect to terrain clearance.
At the engine-out acceleration altitude, apply the same technique as described earlier. Refer to AO-020 ENGINE FAILURE AFTER V1.